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Last Updated: Dec 30, 2023

V Model in Software Engineering

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Hello Ninja, Have you ever thought about how models of software development life cycle play an important role in the information technology field? Do you know about the most popular model in Software Engineering? If not, then don’t worry. We will clear all your doubts.

v model in software engineering

In this article, we will discuss about V model in software engineering. We will also talk about its features and properties. In the end, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the V model in software engineering. Moving forward, let’s understand about V model.

What is a V-Model?

The V model in software engineering is a Software Development Life Cycle model. The V model is the most popular model, and it is widely used in software engineering industries. The name V model is named so because the processes are executed in a V shape only. The development process is started from the top of the letter V. The left and right side of the model shows the design, coding, integration, and testing phases(right side), respectively. The testing phase is the end phase of the V model. After this phase, the product can be used and delivered. Below is the diagram that shows the V model in software engineering.

V Model
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V-Model Phases

There are various phases of a V-Model in Software Engineering -

  • Verification Phase of V-Model
  • Coding Phase of V-Model
  • Validation Phase of V-Model

1. Verification Phase of V-Model

The five phases involved in the verification of the program in the V-model are:

Business Requirement Analysis

In this stage, we thoroughly examine the customer's requirements. This step is essential, in comprehending the product needs from the customer's point of view. During this phase we engage in communication to gain an understanding of the customer's expectations and goals. It holds significance as it forms the basis, for the development process. Throughout this phase several activities occur, including gathering information, documenting requirements prioritizing them and validating their accuracy.

System Design

After completing the analysis of business requirements, system engineers. Comprehend the intended business of the proposed system by referring to the user requirements document. Initially they create a framework, for the system that encompasses its components and their interactions. Subsequently they delve deeper into the intricacies of data structure and algorithms through a design process.

Architecture Design

The phase of Architecture Design is extremely important as it determines the structure of the software system and how different components will work together. This phase typically involves creating a list of modules providing explanations of their functions establishing connections, between interfaces, identifying dependencies designing database tables creating diagrams and specifying technical details. The integration testing model is also implemented during this phase. Additionally it entails defining the database design and making decisions, on programming languages, frameworks and tools to be utilized.

Module Design

The Module Design phase focuses on breaking down the system into smaller, manageable modules. The system is divided into modules during the module design process. Low-Level design is when the specific format of the modules is specified. This includes defining interfaces and proper control flow between them.

2. Coding Phase of V-Model

  • In the V Model, the Coding Phase plays a role as it involves developers writing and implementing the actual source code based on the design specifications provided in the phase. 
  • This phase corresponds to the Design phase on the side of the "V" diagram. During this stage developers convert the high level design, into code while adhering to coding standards and best practices. The code is then Integrated to create software components.
  • It is important to ensure documentation, version control and adherence to coding guidelines in order to maintain code quality and manageability. 
  • Following the Coding Phase we move on to the Testing Phase on the side of the "V" diagram where thorough testing, against requirements is carried out for the developed code.

3. Validation Phase of V-Model

The four phases involved in the validation of the program in the V-model are:

Unit Testing

Unit testing is the step, in the validation phase of the V Model. It focuses on checking program modules or units. During the module design in the V Model, Unit Test Plans (UTPs) are created. These UTPs help resolve any issues, in code or units. A unit refers to an entity that can exist independently like a program module. The goal of unit testing is to ensure that each isolated module or component of the software performs its intended functions correctly. By isolating parts of the code unit testing ensures that they function properly without relying on modules.

Integration Testing

Integration testing ensures that the various components of the software can work together seamlessly as intended. Integration testing follows unit testing and focuses on validating the interactions between different modules or components when they are integrated into larger units. Integration test plans are developed during the architectural design phase. These experiments confirm that groups established and tested independently may cohabit and interact.

System Testing

System testing is the next level of validation and focuses on testing the entire system as a whole. During the system design phase, plans for system tests are created. Unlike Unit and Integration Test Plans, System Test Plans are built by the client's business team. System testing guarantees that an application developer's expectations are satisfied. User acceptance and feedback are critical during this phase to align the software with user expectations. 

Acceptance Testing

The last stage of the validation process is acceptance testing, which aims to ensure that the software meets the expectations and business requirements of the user. It is closely connected to the analysis of business requirements. During this phase the software product is tested in a real world environment to assess its performance. Acceptance testing helps identify any compatibility issues that may arise when integrating with systems, in the users environment. The primary objective of acceptance testing is to confirm that the software is ready, for deployment and can effectively support the users business operations.

When to use V-Model?

V-model is best suited where:

  • The requirements are well-defined and stable.
  • Sufficient technical resources and knowledge are available.
  • The definition of the product is consistent.
  • The project team understands that technology is not dynamic.
  • All prerequisites are clear and precise.
  • The project has a long development cycle. It ensures that software is tested at each phase of the development process.

Principles of V Model in Software Engineering

Some of the principles of the V-model are:


  • According to this principle, the V-Model idea can fit any IT project, regardless of its size, complexity, or length.
  • V-model uses a process-oriented approach instead of a tool-oriented approach. A tool-oriented approach focuses on using specific tools for a development process, which can be ineffective for large projects as it may require customisation. A process-oriented approach focuses on steps in the development process, which makes it more flexible.

Data/Process Integrity

  • According to this principle, successful project design demands the integration and cohesiveness of both data and processes. 
  • For each need, process elements must be recognized.


  • The process of establishing a direct link between requirements and testing activities.
  • Cross-referencing ensures the testing of all requirements. 


  • Every step in the V-model is documented thoroughly. Both the development and the support team require and use the documentation. 
  • Once the program is in production, documentation is needed to maintain it.

Advantages of V-Model

There are various advantages of the V model in software engineering. A few of them are as below.

  • The V model helps in delivering a higher quality of products. As the development process is checked at each step of the V model, the product is improved at each stage and has almost negligible defects in the end.
  • The fixing defects cost is reduced or minimized as the defect can be caught early in the development process.
  • The V model gives a very clear path from the requirement to the testing phase. This helps in tracking progress and identifying defects easily.
  • The V model allows different teams and stakeholders to communicate easily. This helps in improving collaboration and minimizing misunderstandings between them.

Disadvantages of the V-Model

The V model has various advantages, but there are some disadvantages as well. Some of the disadvantages of the V model are as follows. 

  • In large and complex projects, the V model can be time-consuming and expensive too. As each stage must be carefully planned, designed, and tested. 
  • With the V model, different teams may face difficulty while working or collaborating together on a project. As each stage must be completed before going to the next stage.
  • The V model pays much attention to the testing part. This may lead to a lack of focus on other important aspects of the development process. For example, usability, maintainability, and scalability.
  • The V model is inflexible. For example, while working on a project, if there are any requirements or technology changes that take place or are asked by the customer, then in such a case, it can be challenging to go back to the early stages and make changes. 

Refer to know about :  What is debugging

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the V model in software engineering?

The V model in software engineering is a Software Development Life Cycle model. This allows development processes to execute in a V shape manner.

What is V and W model in software testing?

The V-Model in software testing is a development and testing methodology that emphasizes a systematic approach. It aligns development phases with corresponding testing phases, creating a "V" shape. The W-Model extends this by adding maintenance phases post-release.

What is V model and spiral model?

The V-Model in software testing is a development and testing methodology that emphasizes a systematic approach. It aligns development phases with corresponding testing phases, creating a "V" shape. The W-Model extends this by adding maintenance phases post-release. 

What is the use of the V model?

The V model is the most popular model in software engineering. It is the extension of the Waterfall Model. It is widely used in software and web development. It consists of various phases, including the testing phase at each stage. This helps the development team to identify the defects easily at each stage.


In this article, we have discussed the V Model in Software Engineering. We have also talked about the features, properties, advantages, and disadvantages of the V model. Read more articles to enhance your understanding and knowledge on V model  -

We hope this article helped you in understanding about the V model in software engineering. You can read more such articles on our platform, Coding Ninjas Studio

Happy Coding!

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