A database is a collection of data that has been organized in a way that makes it simple to manage and update. Various Database Management Systems (DBMS) have been developed to make this process easier. MySQL, PostgreSQL, MongoDB, Redis, and more databases are examples.
When choosing an open-source relational database management system, the choice between PostgreSQL and MySQL is critical. PostgreSQL and MySQL are both tried-and-true databases that can compete with enterprise databases like Oracle and SQL Server.
MySQL is known for its ease of use and speed, whereas PostgreSQL offers a lot more complicated capabilities, which is why it's sometimes referred to as an open-source version of Oracle.
In this article, we’ll be focusing on the differences between MySQL and PostgreSQL in detail:
Before so, let’s take a closer look at the fundamentals of both databases.
What is MySQL?
MySQL is a well-known and commonly used database management system. The feminine name "My" belongs to Michael Widenius's daughter, who is a co-founder of MySQL. MySQL's source code is accessible under the GNU General Public License. Oracle Corporation owns and maintains the project.
It is a relational database management system (RDBMS) that primarily works with relational databases. It simplifies and expands database management options.
The following are some of MySQL's features:
- Fast, reliable, and easy.
- It can be used for both large and small projects.
- It has a lot of scalabilities.
What is PostgreSQL?
The Postgre database management system is an object-relational database management system (ORDBMS). It was developed at the University of California's Computer Science Department. Many concepts were pioneered by Postgres.
PostgreSQL is a relational database system aimed at businesses. It's easy to set up and use. Both SQL and NoSQL databases are supported. It has a terrific community that is willing to help you if you're encountering PostgreSQL issues.
Some of the major highlights of this database are:
- A large number of languages are supported.
- It has a lot of security measures.
- It supports geo-tagging.
Why use MySQL?
A few convincing reasons to utilize MySQL are as follows:
- Scale-Out and Master-Slave Replication are among the features that are supported.
- There are features such as geographic data distribution, offload reporting, and more.
- When utilized for read-only applications, the MyISAM storage engine has a very low overhead.
- Memory storage engine support for frequently used tables
- For frequently used statements, there is a query cache.
- Different sources, including blogs, white papers, and books, can help you learn and troubleshoot MySQL.
Why use PostgreSQL?
The following are the main reasons for utilizing PostgreSQL:
- Table partitioning, Point in Time Recovery, Transactional DDL, and more features are available.
- The ability to use third-party Key Stores as part of a full PKI architecture.
- Because open-source code is licensed under the BSD license, developers can modify it without having to contribute back enhancements.
- It can be redistributed by independent software vendors without the worry of being "infected" by an open-source license.
- It is possible to assign users and roles. Privileges at the object level.
- AES, 3DES, and other data encryption techniques are supported.
MySQL is an open-source product.
PostgreSQL is an open-source project.
MySQL's source code is available under the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL).
The PostgreSQL license, which is a free Open Source license is used to distribute PostgreSQL. The BSD and MIT licenses are similar in this regard.
Only when the InnoDB and NDB Cluster Storage engines are utilized with MySQL is it ACID-compliant.
PostgreSQL complies with all ACID requirements.
Since MySQL 8.0.16, the CHECK constraint has been supported. Before that, MySQL just disregarded it.
PostgreSQL is SQL-compliant to a significant extent.
It has a vast community of contributors that primarily focus on maintaining existing functionality, with new additions popping up every now and again.
The active community strives to enhance the database's present features, while the inventive community works to keep it at the forefront of technology. On a regular basis, new cutting-edge features and security updates are provided.
It's most commonly utilized in web-based projects that require a database for simple data operations.
It's a popular choice in large systems where read and write speeds are critical.
When only read speeds are required, MySQL performs well in OLAP and OLTP systems.
When it comes to sophisticated queries, PostgreSQL shines.
Support for JSON
MySQL supports JSON data types, but none of the other NoSQL features.
JSON and other NoSQL features, such as native XML support, are supported. It also has the ability to index JSON data for faster access.
Support for materialized views
Temporary tables are supported, but no materialized views are available.
Materialized views and temporary tables are supported.
Tables used for the triggers or procedure are always pre-locked and limited to some commands.
Tables used for the triggers or procedure do not need to be pre-locked. Also, it supports triggers that can fire on most of the commands.
MySQL has a thriving ecosystem, including MariaDB, Percona, Galera, and more forks.
There have been few high-end options for PostgreSQL. However, with the addition of new features in the most recent edition, this is changing.
At the session and statement levels, default values can be overwritten.
Only at the system level may default settings be modified.
When necessary, two or more B-tree indexes can be employed.
Dynamically transformed predicates are B-tree indexes that are merged at runtime to evaluate.
Exceptional item statistics
Stack Overflow questions
Limit join capabilities
Good join capabilities
Pros of MySQL
- MySQL is a community-driven database management system that runs on a variety of platforms and supports all major languages and middleware.
- Multi-version concurrency control is supported.
- The ANSI SQL standard is followed.
- Allows replication depending on logs and triggers. Compatible with ANSI-SQL2008 and SSL Object-Oriented.
- Independent modules in a multi-layered design.
- Kernel Threads are used to make the program fully multi-threaded.
- The server is offered as an embedded database or as a client-server paradigm.
- Offers Built-in query analysis and spatial analysis tools.
- It can handle any size data set, up to 50 million rows or more.
- MySQL runs on a wide range of UNIX systems, as well as non-UNIX platforms such as Windows and OS/2.
Pros of PostgreSQL
- An active community that is growing at a rapid pace.
- The most popular alternative to Oracle, DB2, and SQL Server. Supports all major operating systems.
- MVCC can handle a high number of users at the same time.
- For high-performance reporting, extensive indexing is required.
- Modern applications are supported (XML and JSON).
- Support for ANSI SQL for portable skills/code.
- Support for foreign keys allows for more efficient data storage.
- Flexible data retrieval with table joins and views.
- For sophisticated programs and transactions, triggers/stored procedures are used.
- Data backup and read scalability are both aided by replication.
Cons of using MySQL
- The system catalog transactions are not ACID compliant.
- From time to time, the system catalog can be corrupted by a server crash.
- There isn't a pluggable authentication module, so centrally controlled accounts aren't possible.
- Because there is no support for roles, it is difficult to manage privileges for a large number of users.
- Caching is not possible with stored procedures.
- The procedure or trigger tables are always pre-locked.
Cons of using PostgreSQL
- External solutions currently in use have a steep learning curve.
- There is no way to upgrade major releases.
- The data must be replicated or exported to the new version.
- During the upgrading, you'll need double storage.
- The results of a query cannot be returned straight from an index.
- The execution plans for queries are not cached.
- Bulk loading processes may be CPU-intensive.
- Support from Independent Software Vendors is limited.
Better among both
After comparing the two, we can conclude that MySQL has done an excellent job of updating itself in order to remain relevant, but PostgreSQL does not require any licensing. Table inheritance, rules systems, custom data types, and database events are also available. As a result, PostgreSQL clearly outperforms MySQL.
Recommended Topic - Specialization and Generalization in DBMS
- Which is simpler to learn, MySQL or PostgreSQL??
MySQL is more user-friendly than PostgreSQL. There are a lot of materials and help accessible for MySQL, so debugging any issues you may have will be simple.
- When should PostgreSQL be used?
PostgreSQL is the database management system to utilize if your project requires a lot of sophisticated processes and is vast, or if you need a feature-rich database management system with advanced security capabilities then you should go for PostgreSQL.
- Why is PostgreSQL so widely used?
PostgreSQL is a powerful database management system with numerous sophisticated functionalities and security features. It's also a community-driven database management system that's open-source and free to use. Because of these features, PostgreSQL is a popular database among users.
MySQL and PostgreSQL have a lot of differences among them but both of them are useful according to one's needs and feasibility so there is no sure winner. It is up to the user what kind of features he/she is looking for.
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