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Last Updated: Oct 17, 2023

Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System)



A database management system is a software system designed to create and manage data in an organized manner. We will discuss DBMS, why we need it, applications, types, and characteristics. We will look at components, advantages, disadvantages, and limitations. We will also talk about the various database languages and database design.     

Introduction to DBMS

What is Database?

A Database is a collection of data managed systematically. Databases store, analyze, manage, and retrieve information. The information we can get is for multiple users. There are different types of databases. The databases can be NoSQL, relational, and object-oriented databases. 

Also See, Multiple Granularity in DBMS

What is a Database Management System?

DBMS, or a database management system, is a software application that provides a medium for users to interact with the database. It provides a secure, efficient, manageable, and organized way to store and access data. It includes various features, such as indexing, data modeling, transaction management, backup, recovery, etc.

In simpler words, DBMS is a computerized way of storing and organizing data. It ensures the data is secured and allows us to make changes as required. A prevalent example that we can consider here is a school or college database. A school has thousands of students enrolled. We can update the system if there is a new admission or even access the data of a pass-out batch.             

History of DBMS

Let’s look at the history of DBMS -

Time-Period History of DBMS
Early1960sDBMS was first introduced around the early 1960s by Charles W. Bachman. The first DBMS was then called the Integrated Data Store or IDS. Earlier, DBMS was used to manage large amounts of data in large industries, such as banks and airlines.
1970sThe 1970s saw the development of the Network and Relational Data Model.  
1980sIn the 1980s, DBMS became popular after introducing systems like Oracle, IMS, and SQL servers.  

In today's world, DBMS is an integral component of modern businesses. It is used in several industries, such as finance, healthcare, and government.

Need of DBMS

DBMS offers various features for storing and managing data. We must know the organization's needs and requirements to choose the right DBMS. Let's look at the multiple reasons why we need a DBMS -

  • Data Integrity: DBMS ensures the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of the data stored in the database.
  • Data Security: DBMS offers several security features that protect the data from unauthorized access and modification.
  • Data Scalability: DBMS allows multiple users to access, share, and change the data, which is an integral feature for team projects.
  • Data backup and recovery: DBMS offers the backup and recovery option to prevent data loss.

Applications of Database Management

Applications of Database Management

DBMS is an integral part of managing an organization's data efficiently. It is a valuable tool for storing and accessing large amounts of data in real-time. The applications of DBMS can be seen in a wide range of industries; let's take a look:


DBMS is used in hospitals to store patient data, medical information, medications, medical histories, methods, and employee data. 

Banking and Finance

DBMS is used in banking and finance to store the details regarding customer accounts. It stores details such as transactions, withdrawals, and credits. It ensures that the financial status of the customers is secured, updated, and managed efficiently.


Schools and universities use DBMS to manage student data. It tracks student performance, academic logs, and attendance.


DBMS is used in this industry to manage transportation. It helps in schedules and operations that further help associations enhance customer satisfaction.

Also see, Recursive Relationship in DBMS

Types of Database Management System

Various database management systems are based on their functionality, format, and applications. Let's look at a few of them - 


Relational DBMS is the most popular DBMS. In big organizations, it works with large and structured data. It is based on a relational model that classifies the data into tables or relations. For example - Oracle and MySQL.  

Non Relational

Non-relational databases offer flexibility and scalability. Non-relational DBMS uses several data models to handle unstructured and real-time data scalability.    


Hierarchical DBMS organizes data into a tree-like structure. A hierarchical DBMS is ideal for organizations with finite data access requirements. For example - Integrated Data Store (IDS) and IBM's Information Management System.  


Network DBMS stores data in a network model. A network DBMS is used in organizations with complex data relations. For example - total information management system (TIMS).  


NoSQL stands for "Not Only SQL." It refers to databases that do not use SQL for handling data. A NoSQL DBMS is used for reserving large amounts of data. For example - images and log files.  

Key Features Of DBMS(Database Management System)

Key Features Of DBMS

DBMS is a vital tool for storing and managing data. Some of the features of DBMS are discussed as follows -

  • Data Independence: In DBMS, data independence is the ability to separate an application's logical design from the database.
  • Data Consistency: DBMS maintains and ensures the consistency of the data stored in the database.
  • Data Abstraction: This feature offers users a simplified view of the data. Here, we hide the complexity of the data.
  • Data Integrity: DBMS ensures the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of the data stored in the database.
  • Data Security: DBMS protects the data from unauthorized access and changes.
  • Scalability: DBMS allows multiple users to access, share, and change the data.This is an essential part of team projects.
  • Data backup and recovery: Data backup and recovery option prevents data loss.

Types of Database Languages

Given below are the various database languages in DBMS - 

Data Manipulation Language

Data Manipulation Language (DML) in DBMS is a syntax. It is used to change, update, and retrieve the data stored in a database. It allows the users to interact with the DBMS efficiently. Some standard DML statements include Select, insert, update, and delete.

Data Definition Language

Data Definition Language (DDL) in DBMS is a syntax. It is used to describe the structure of database objects. It is required in DBMS as it helps to store and efficiently manage data. Some standard DDL statements are Create Table, Alter table, Create index, and Create view.    

Data Control Language

Data Control Language (DCL) in DBMS is a syntax. It is used to ensure the security, accessibility, and integrity of data in a DBMS. It is a SQL component that allows the database administrator to control access to the data. It ensures the protection of data from unauthorized access and modification.  

Transaction Control Language

Transaction control language (TCL) in DBMS is a set of commands. It is used to manage the transactions and control the changes in a database. TCL aims to ensure data integrity and consistency of the database. The standard TCL commands are - Commit, Rollback, and Savepoint.

Architecture of DBMS

DBMS architecture describes the structure of a database system. It is designed to manage and organize how the data is stored, retrieved, and changed in a database. The DBMS architecture may be simple or complex, depending on the requirements and size of the database.   

Types of DBMS Architecture

Let's look at the different types of DBMS architectures -

  • 1-tier architecture: This is the most fundamental DBMS architecture. In a 1-tier architecture, the user interface, application, and database are all on the same system. This type of architecture is used for small applications.
  • 2-tier architecture: This architecture separates the database, and the user interface into two different components. Here, the user interface sends requests to the database server, which processes and responds to the requests. A 2-tier architecture is used for applications that have simple data processing requirements. 
  • 3-tier architecture: This architecture is the most flexible and advanced DBMS architecture. The user interface, database, and application logic are divided into three components. A 3-tier architecture offers advanced security, scalability, and high performance. It is ideal for applications that have complex data processing requirements.

Database Design

In DBMS, database design is the process of creating and organizing a database structure to meet the needs and requirements of an organization.

database design

It is an integral aspect of DBMS. A well-designed database ensures data storage, reliability, and security.  

ER Modeling

ER or Entity Relationship modeling is a data modeling technique. It is used in DBMS by representing the entities visually to design and build databases. A basic Entity Relationship Model consists of entity types with specific relationships between the entities. 


In DBMS, normalization is a process to manage data such that data integrity increases and data redundancy decreases. It aims to simplify data dependencies and relationships. Normalization involves a series of normal forms, such as 1NF, 2NF, etc. Each of these normal forms has specific rules for managing data. 


Indexing speeds up query processing. It improves the overall performance of a database by minimizing disc accesses while a query gets processed. Indexing allows the DBMS to quickly identify, locate, and retrieve the data. 


Hashing is a DBMS technique that converts data into hash codes using mathematical functions. This makes retrieving data faster than other methods, such as binary or sequential search. Hashing ensures data integrity and reduces the risk of data loss.  

DBMS Use Cases

Given below are a few DBMS Use cases - 


NoSQL databases are ideal in several circumstances. The types of applications include the internet of things, social media, and mobile apps. For example, NoSQL is used in social media to store large amounts of user-generated data. It is used in the industry to handle real-time updates, store user information, and track user activity.


SQL is a domain-specified language. It is used on platforms such as Facebook. SQL is used in IT, AI projects, customer relationship management, and e-commerce. For example, in the IT industry, SQL organizes and manages data in a database. It is used for various applications, such as data warehousing, enterprise resource planning, and business intelligence systems.


RDBMS is ideal in several cases. The types of applications include manufacturing, human resource, and banking, among many others. For example, RDBMS stores and manages information about quality control, shipping, and production plan in manufacturing. It helps the manufacturing sector to ensure the data's security, integrity, and consistency. RDBMS provides real-time visibility into the manufacturing process. It shapes decision-making based on data and statistics. 


DBMS is a systematically organized set of data. It is used in railway management systems, library management systems, healthcare, and education. For example, in the railway management system, DBMS stores information about the passengers, schedules, and seats booked in a database. It helps railway organizations improve operational efficiency and customer experience and make informed decisions based on the data.

Popular DBMS Systems

Given below are the various popular DBMS systems - 

  • MySQL: It is an open-source relational DBMS. It is widely used for web-based applications. It supports SQL and supports data storage in the form of tables.
  • Microsoft SQL Server: It is a relational DBMS that supports SQL. It offers features such as high availability and data recovery. 
  • Oracle: It is a relational DBMS. It is scalable and supports SQL and Oracle's proprietary procedural language. 
  • PostgreSQL: It is an open-source relational DBMS. It is widely used for geospatial applications. It offers features like server-side programming.  

Advantages of DBMS

Given below are the advantages of DBMS - 

  • Data Recovery: Hardware failure or human error often leads to data loss. A DBMS provides backup and recovery to secure the data in case of unexpected events.
  • Data Accessibility: DBMS offers efficient and quick data retrieval irrespective of data size.
  • Data Sharing: DBMS allows multiple users to access and edit the data securely. This helps organizations with the flexibility to share data efficiently. 
  • Data Integrity: DBMS ensures the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of the data stored in the database.

Disadvantages of DBMS

Given below are the disadvantages of DBMS - 

  • Security: A DBMS stores private information, such as financial data, that can be accessed illegally if not protected by an effective security system. This security system can be expensive and challenging to implement. 
  • Dependence on IT: Database Management Systems depend on IT support which can be challenging for organizations that do not have an effective IT infrastructure. If there are some complications with the IT, the system can cause disruptions and inconveniences in business operations. 
  • Data Inconsistencies: A DBMS may contain incorrect and inconsistent data, which leads to bad decision-making. This can affect the business negatively.
  • Integration Challenges: Integrating a DBMS with other systems can be tough and time-consuming; this reduces productivity and efficiency.  

Limitations of DBMS

Given below are the various limitations of DBMS - 

  • Cost: Implementation and maintenance of a DBMS can be a task. We must consider the cost of hardware, network, and software licenses, among others.  
  • Complexity: DBMS can be complex to understand for non-technical users and beginners.
  • Performance: Large databases with complex data or high concurrency levels affect a DBMS's performance.  
  • Maintenance: Regular maintenance is vital to ensure the performance and stability of a database management system. This can be a task as we must update security, backup, and recovery.

Also See, Specialization and Generalization in DBMS

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a Database Management System (DBMS)?

DBMS, or a database management system, is a software application. It provides a medium for users to interact with the database. It offers a secure, efficient, manageable, and organized way to store and access data. It includes various features like indexing, data modeling, transaction management, backup, and recovery.

What are the different types of DBMS?

There are various types of DBMS, such as Relational, Non-relational, Hierarchical, Network, and NoSQL DBMS. Relational DBMS is the most popular DBMS, non-relational databases offer flexibility and scalability, and hierarchical DBMS organizes data into a tree-like structure. Network DBMS stores data in a network model, and NoSQL refers to databases that do not use SQL to manage data.

What are the five 5 functions of the DBMS?

A DBMS performs five core functions: data definition, manipulation, storage and retrieval, security and user access control, and integrity and consistency. Benefits of using a DBMS include improved data management, data consistency and accuracy, and increased data security and accessibility, among others.

What are the advantages of DBMS?

Advantages of using a DBMS include data sharing and integration, improved data consistency and accuracy, reduced data redundancy, increased data security, and improved data accessibility and usability.


This article discusses DBMS in detail and covers various aspects, such as its history, use cases, and applications. It looks into the different types of DBMS, components, characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and limitations. It also talks about various database languages, why we need DBMS, the architecture of DBMS, popular DBMS systems, and database design. After reading this article, you will understand the basic concepts and terminologies related to DBMS.
You can also consider our Database Management Course to give your career an edge over others!

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Transaction Management in DBMS