Deductive reasoning is a process of drawing logically concrete conclusions from one or a few statements with the help of reasoning.
It needs us to use our problem-solving skills and reasoning skills to make logical conclusions and evaluate arguments.
The most important thing in deductive reasoning is that we need to rely on the information given solely and not on our knowledge.
There are three common types of deductive reasoning-
- Syllogisms- In this type of deductive reasoning, we have a few sentences used as premises/rules, and another statement serves as the conclusion.
For example- (A)If a person is born in the 2010s, they are called kids.
(B)If a person is a kid, they must not use mobile.
(C)Therefore, if a person is born in the 2010s, they must not use mobile.
- Modus ponens- In this type of logical reasoning, we have a conditional statement, then an antecedent of the conditional statement. And the consequent of the conditional statement as the conclusion.
For example- (A)If a person is between 2010 and 2020, he is a kid.
(B)Ram was born in 2015.
(C)Ram is a kid.
- Modus tollens- In this type of logical reasoning, we have a conditional statement and the negation of the consequent as a second statement. Then we have the negation of the antecedent as the conclusion.
For example- (A)If I am writing, then I am listening to music.
(B)I am not listening to music.
(C)Thus, I am not writing.
Types of problems
Problems on deductive reasoning can be divided into the following categories -
Problems on syllogisms
In this type of deductive reasoning, we have a few sentences used as premises/rules for the problem, and another statement serves as the conclusion. Then we have to check if the conclusion is valid or not.
Problems with arrangements
It is another form of problem in deductive reasoning, in which we are given information about the order of arrangements of objects and based on that information. We need to draw conclusions about the order of objects or may be asked to tell the whole order of objects depending on the problem.