An operating system (OS) serves as an interface between computer hardware and users. It is software that handles input and output, file management, memory management, process management, and manages peripheral devices like disk drives and printers. A batch operating system executes a series of jobs or tasks in batch mode without any need for constant user interaction for each task. It groups multiple jobs and executes them sequentially, one after the other.
What is a Batch Operating System?
A batch operating system is an operating system that uses batch processing. A Batch Operating System allows multiple users to use it, without any direct communication between them. Jobs with similar types are grouped and processed as a batch to save time. The operator groups the programs with similar requirements into sets or batches for efficient execution.
A computer with a batch-processing operating system performs the following tasks:
- A new job is created. It is a single unit made up of a predetermined sequence of commands, data, and programs
- Processing occurs in the order that they are received, i.e., first come, first served (FCFS)
- These jobs are kept in memory and executed without the need for manual input
- Once the job execution is complete, the OS releases the memory assigned to the job
Also see, Difference Between Bit and Byte
Types of Batch Operating System
There are two types of batch operating systems.
- Simple Batched System
- Multi-Programmed Batched System
Let us now discuss each of these in detail.
1. Simple Batched System
There is no direct interaction between the user and the computer in a simple batched system. The user must submit a job (written on cards or tape) to a computer operator. The computer operator then places a batch of several jobs on an input device. Jobs are organised by language type and requirement. The Batch monitor then manages the execution of each program in the batch. The Batch monitor is always in the main memory and ready for execution.
2. Multi-Programmed Batched System
In this case, the operating system takes over and begins executing one of the jobs from memory. When this job requires I/O operation, the operating system switches to another job (CPU and OS are always busy). The number of jobs in memory is always less than the number of jobs on disc (Job Pool). If several jobs are ready to run at the same time, the system chooses which one to run using the CPU Scheduling process. There are times when the CPU in a non-multiprogramming system sits idle and does nothing.
In a multiprogramming system, the CPU is never idle and is constantly processing.
Why are Batch Operating Systems used?
Batch operating systems put less strain on the CPU and require less user interaction, which is why they are still in use today. Another advantage of batch operating systems is that large repetitive tasks can be completed without interacting with the computer to notify the system that you need to perform another task after you finish the current one.
How Does a Batch Operating System Work?
Now that we know what batch processing and batch processing operating systems are let us see how the batch operating system works.
- The 'Batch Monitor,' which is located at the low end of the main memory, performs the majority of the work in a batch processing system
- The operating system keeps track of the number of jobs in memory and executes them one at a time
- Jobs are handled on a first-come, first-served basis. A batch is defined for each job set
- When a task is completed, its memory is released, and the output of the work is transferred to an output spool for later printing or processing
Features of Batch Operating System
The characteristics of the batch operating system are as follows:
- In batch operating systems, jobs that have similar resource requirements are grouped together, known as a batch
- These jobs are executed based on a first-come, first-serve basis. It totally depends on which job has been sent first by the operator to the CPU
- A batch operating system executes a set of user-supplied instructions that are made up of distinct instructions and programs that share some similarities
- In a batch operating system, the user does not interact directly with the operating system; rather, all instructions are sent to the operator, and it is the responsibility of the operator to send the jobs to the CPU for execution
- The operator evaluates the user's instructions and generates a set of similar instructions
- When a task is successfully executed, the OS releases the memory space held by that job.
Advantages of Batch Operating System
The advantages of the batch-processing operating system are as follows:
- The batch processing system takes less time for the execution of all the jobs
- All jobs in a batch operating system are repeated without the user's permission. Small businesses can benefit from batch processing systems for completing small tasks
- The Batch operating system can be shared between multiple users owing to its shareable nature
- It is suitable for large jobs. It can easily manage large jobs efficiently
Disadvantages of Batch Operating System
After advantages, let us now look at the areas where the batch processing operating system is not able to perform as expected. The disadvantages are as follows:
- The computer operator must be trained and provided ample knowledge for handling the batch processing operating system
- It takes more time for debugging
- The users do not have direct interaction with the system
- It has a high turnaround time
- If a job enters an infinite loop, other jobs might have to wait for an unknown period of time
- Failure of one job impacts the execution of other jobs
Frequently Asked Questions
What is a batch operating system also known as?
A batch operating system, also known as a batch processing operating system, is designed to run steady jobs or tasks in a batch-wise mode without constant user interaction, allowing efficient job processing. The primary operation of the batch operating system is to execute jobs automatically in sets or batches.
What is a batch processing operating system with example?
Batch Processing OS is an operating system that groups similar jobs. Multiple jobs or tasks of the same type are grouped into sets or batches in batch OS and given to the CPU for execution. Some examples of Batch OS use are Payroll Systems, Transaction processes, billing, etc.
Which generation used batch processing?
Transistors and Batch systems were introduced in the second generation to manage multiple tasks of similar type in a set or batch. They introduced the batch system to reduce wasted time waiting for the CPU to process the task or job.
Batch processing is a technique in which an operating system collects programs and data in a batch before beginning processing. When a task is completed, task's or job's occupied memory is freed, and the task's output is sent to an output spool for later printing or processing. Because of reduced interaction with the user(s), we may now use batch operating systems in large companies to update data relevant to any transaction or record.
In this article, we have extensively discussed the batch processing operating system. We learned what a batch-processing operating system is and what its characteristics are.
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