Sum Of Infinite Array

Posted: 11 Nov, 2020
Difficulty: Moderate


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Given an array “A” of N integers and you have also defined the new array “B” as a concatenation of array “A” for an infinite number of times.

For example, if the given array “A” is [1,2,3] then, infinite array “B” is [1,2,3,1,2,3,1,2,3,.......].

Now you are given Q queries, each query consists of two integers “L“ and “R”. Your task is to find the sum of the subarray from index “L” to “R” (both inclusive) in the infinite array “B” for each query.

Note :

The value of the sum can be very large, return the answer as modulus 10^9+7.
Input format :
The first line of input contains a single integer T, representing the number of test cases or queries to be run.

Then the T test cases follow. 

The first line of each test case contains a single integer N, denoting the size of the array “A”.

The second line of each test case contains N single space-separated integers, elements of the array “A”.

The third line of each test case contains a single integer Q, denoting the number of queries.

Then each of the Q lines of each test case contains two single space-separated integers L, and R denoting the left and the  right index of the infinite array “B” whose sum is to be returned. 
Output format :
For each test case, print Q space-separated integers that denote the answers of the given Q queries. 
Print the answer to each test case in a separate line.

Note :

You do not need to print anything, it has already been taken care of. Just implement the given function.
Constraints :
1 <= T <= 100
1 <= N <= 10^4   
1 <= A[i] <= 10^9
1 <= Q <= 10^4
1 <= L <= R <= 10^18

Time Limit: 1sec
Approach 1
  • Instead of creating a new infinite array B which has a repeated array A elements in the form [A1, A2,... AN, A1, A2,... AN, A1, A2,... AN…....]. We will traverse array A, again and again, to find the sum as array A is only repeating in infinite array B.
  • So the brute force approach is, for each query,
    • we run a loop from L to R, and for each index i, add the value at index (i%N) of the array A i.e A[i%N] to sum. So this way we can find the sum of the required subarray from index L to R in an infinite array B.
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