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Sum Of Infinite Array

Last Updated: 11 Nov, 2020
Difficulty: Moderate


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Given an array “A” of N integers and you have also defined the new array “B” as a concatenation of array “A” for an infinite number of times.

For example, if the given array “A” is [1,2,3] then, infinite array “B” is [1,2,3,1,2,3,1,2,3,.......].

Now you are given Q queries, each query consists of two integers “L“ and “R”(1-based indexing). Your task is to find the sum of the subarray from index “L” to “R” (both inclusive) in the infinite array “B” for each query.

Note :

The value of the sum can be very large, return the answer as modulus 10^9+7.
Input format :
The first line of input contains a single integer T, representing the number of test cases or queries to be run.

Then the T test cases follow. 

The first line of each test case contains a single integer N, denoting the size of the array “A”.

The second line of each test case contains N single space-separated integers, elements of the array “A”.

The third line of each test case contains a single integer Q, denoting the number of queries.

Then each of the Q lines of each test case contains two single space-separated integers L, and R denoting the left and the  right index of the infinite array “B” whose sum is to be returned. 
Output format :
For each test case, print Q space-separated integers that denote the answers of the given Q queries. 
Print the answer to each test case in a separate line.

Note :

You do not need to print anything, it has already been taken care of. Just implement the given function.
Constraints :
1 <= T <= 100
1 <= N <= 10^4   
1 <= A[i] <= 10^9
1 <= Q <= 10^4
1 <= L <= R <= 10^18

Time Limit: 1sec

Approach 1

  • Instead of creating a new infinite array B which has a repeated array A elements in the form [A1, A2,... AN, A1, A2,... AN, A1, A2,... AN…....]. We will traverse array A, again and again, to find the sum as array A is only repeating in infinite array B.
  • So the brute force approach is, for each query,
    • we run a loop from L to R, and for each index i, add the value at index (i%N) of the array A i.e A[i%N] to sum. So this way we can find the sum of the required subarray from index L to R in an infinite array B.
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