LRU Cache Implementation

Posted: 29 Aug, 2020
Difficulty: Moderate

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Try Problem

Design and implement a data structure for Least Recently Used (LRU) cache to support the following operations:

1. get(key) - Return the value of the key if the key exists in the cache, otherwise return -1.

2. put(key, value), Insert the value in the cache if the key is not already present or update the value of the given key if the key is already present. When the cache reaches its capacity, it should invalidate the least recently used item before inserting the new item.
You will be given ‘Q’ queries. Each query will belong to one of these two types:
Type 0: for get(key) operation.
Type 1: for put(key, value) operation.
Note :
1. The cache is initialized with a capacity (the maximum number of unique keys it can hold at a time).

2. Access to an item or key is defined as a get or a put operation on the key. The least recently used key is the one with the oldest access time.
Input Format :
The first line of input contains two space-separated integers 'C' and 'Q', denoting the capacity of the cache and the number of operations to be performed respectively.

The next Q lines contain operations, one per line. Each operation starts with an integer which represents the type of operation. 

If it is 0, then it is of the first type and is followed by one integer key. 

If it is 1, it is of the second type and is followed by two space-separated integers key and value(in this order). 
Output Format :
For each operation of type 0, print an integer on a single line, denoting the value of the key if the key exists, otherwise -1.
Note :
You don't need to print anything, it has already been taken care of. Just implement the given function.
Constraints :
1 <= C <= 10^4
1 <= Q <= 10^5
1 <= key, value <= 10^9

Time Limit: 1 sec
Sample Input 1 :
3 11
1 1 1
1 2 2
1 3 3
1 4 5
0 3
0 1
0 4
1 2 3
0 1
0 3
0 2
Sample Output 1 :
3
-1
5
-1
3
3
Explanation to Sample Input 1 :

alt-text

Initializing a cache of capacity 3, LRUCache cache = new LRUCache(3);
Then each operation is performed as shown in the above figure.
cache.put(1,1)
cache.put(2,2)
cache.put(3,3)
cache.put(4,5)
cache.get(3)      // returns 3
cache.get(1)      // returns -1
cache.get(2)      // returns 2
cache.put(5,5)
cache.get(4)      // returns -1
cache.get(3)      // returns 3
Sample Input 2 :
2 6
1 1 1
1 2 2
0 2
1 3 3
0 3
0 1
Sample Output 2 :
2
3
-1
Approach 1

We will use an array of type Pair<key, value> to implement our LRU Cache where the larger the index is, the more recently the key is used. Means, the 0th index denotes the least recently used pair, and the last index denotes the most recently used pair.

 

The key will be considered as accessed if we try to perform any operation on it. So while performing the get operation on a key, we will do a linear search, if the key found in the cache at an index id we will left shift all keys starting from id+1 in the cache by one and put the key at the end (marking it as the most recently used key in the cache). 

 

Similarly, while performing the put operation on a key, we will do a linear search, if the key found at index equals to id, we will shift left all keys starting from id+1 in the cache by one and put the key at the end. Otherwise, we will check the current size of the cache. If the size equals capacity, we will remove the first(0th) key from the cache by doing the left shift on all the keys by one. Now we can simply insert the key at the end.

 

size: denotes the current size of the cache.

capacity: denotes the maximum keys cache can hold at one time.

cache: denotes the array of type pair to store key-value pairs.

Pair: Pair type will store these values, key, value.

 

Algorithm

 

This method will return the index of the key if it exists in the cache, otherwise -1.

 

getIndex(int key):

  • For all the pairs in the cache, from i = 0 to size - 1.
    • If currentPair->key == key, return i.
  • Return -1, as the given key does not exist in the cache.

This method will shift left all the pairs starting from the start index by 1.

 

leftShift(int start):

  • If start == size, no pair exists to shift, return.
  • For all pairs in tha cache, from i = start to size - 1,
    • cache[i - 1] = cache[i]

 

int get(key):

  • ID = getIndex(key).
  • If ID == -1, the key does not exist in the cache, return -1.
  • Get the pair at index = ID, let it pair.
  • leftShift(ID + 1).
  • cache[size - 1] = pair
  • Return pair->value.

 

void put(key, value):

  • ID = getIndex(key).
  • If ID is not equal to -1, the key already exists in the cache,
    • Get the pair at index = ID, let it pair.
    • leftShift(ID + 1).
    • pair->value = value.
    • cache[size - 1] = pair
    • Return.
  • Create a new pair of (key, value), let it be pair.
  • If the size is less than the capacity,
    • Insert pair in cache at index = size, cache[size] = pair
    • Increment size by 1.
  • Otherwise,
    • Remove the first pair from the cache, by performing a left shift, leftShift(1).

Insert pair in cache at index = size - 1, cache[size - 1] = 

pair.

Try Problem