Your Guide to the ORM

Last Updated: May 13, 2022


Before I go into the proper definition of ORM, let me give you an example that will help you understand the concept better. 

So, have you ever used a SQL database in your application and used SQL queries to update, insert, or retrieve data, regardless of how complex the queries are? As a result, the concept of Object Relational Mapping emerges (ORM). It's also a programming approach that uses object-oriented programming languages to transform data between incompatible type systems.

It implies you may write database queries in your favorite language's object-oriented paradigm, and numerous free and commercial programs perform relational object mapping.


ORM establishes a connection between objects written in the preferred programming language such as JavaScript and a relational database like SQL. It encapsulates and hides SQL queries in objects, allowing us to use them directly instead of SQL queries.


For, e.g., if your preferred language is Python:






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Benefits of using ORM

Now the question arises: why should we include ORM frameworks in the middle if we can utilize queries directly? 

The reasons are as follows:

  • So, first and foremost, you get to write in the language that you already know. Directly writing SQL queries can be difficult in some circumstances since they are complex. So, to keep fluency, we use ORM, which allows us to write in the language we are familiar with.
  • Second, it separates your application logic from SQL or any other database query.
  • ORMs also theoretically allow an application to switch between different relational databases. A developer may, for example, use SQLite for local development and MySQL for production. With few code changes, a production application might be moved from MySQL to PostgreSQL.
  • Also,  for heavy database usages, such as creating 10+ tables and many queries in them, ORM is recommended since it reduces code, improves code understanding for you and your team members, and makes your application faster and easier to maintain.


ORS Frameworks

Numerous ORM frameworks are used with various languages, including Enterprise Java Beans (EJB), Hibernate, etc.

We may also use bookshelf.js, which is based on Knex SQL Query Builder, with JavaScript. It's compatible with PostgreSQL, MySQL, and SQLite3. Mongoose.js, a framework for working with MongoDB.

Check out the chart below to see how ORMs may be used with various web frameworks, connectors, and relational databases.

Examples of how varying Python ORMs can work with different connectors and backends.




Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Is ORM a framework?
    ORM is short for Object Relational Mapping. In a nutshell, an ORM framework is a program written in an object-oriented language (such as PHP, Java, C#, etc.) that wraps around a relational database.
  2. Should I use ORM?
    The most important reason to use an ORM is to have a strong, object-oriented business model while still being able to store it and run efficient queries against a relational database quickly.
  3. Is ORM better than SQL?
    ORM and SQL are two database management techniques that web developers can employ. When compared to ORM, SQL has a higher level of hands-on management. Because ORM offers a higher level of abstraction and complexity than SQL, it requires less hands-on management, resulting in more efficient data management.
  4. Is there any disadvantage of using ORM?
    ORM has several drawbacks, including impedance mismatch and the potential for lower performance. Complexity is being shifted from the database to the application code.

Key takeaways

So, we can conclude the article in a very simple line that ORM is used to build database queries in the preferred languages instead of writing database queries.

To read more about ORM, click on the following link.

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