Statements, Assumptions, and Conclusions

Pranay Chauhan
Last Updated: May 13, 2022

Introduction

Statements, assumptions, and Conclusions topic is crucial in aptitude preparation. Various exams ask many questions that revolve around statements, assumptions, and conclusions topic.

Firstly, let us discuss what is meant by statements, assumptions, and conclusions terms.

Understanding the terms

Statement

A statement is a collection of words arranged in order to form a meaningful sentence. Statements are the kind of sentences that are either true or false. Statements are assertions of something possible or that is impossible. 

A statement is true if what it claims is the case and false if it is not the case or is impossible.

For instance, "The sun rises in the east" is a statement as it is always true.

Assumptions

An assumption is an unstated situation that we take for valid or that supports the conclusion. The assumption stated needs to be identified. 

For example, in The statement we considered above, "The sun rises in the east," the assumption is that "The earth rotates in the east direction, so that is why the sun rises in the east ." This was initially just an assumption that was assumed to be true before any scientific proof. This assumption is now proved valid with the help of scientific progress.

Conclusion

A conclusion is a decision or opinion reached after some research or a period of thought on some facts or sentence that someone has said. 

Before concluding, one has to analyze all the consequent outcomes. Making a conclusion is a very systematic and logical process.

Question Types

Mainly there are two types of questions that can be formed from this topic.

  1. Statements and Assumptions
  2. Statements and Conclusions

 

Further, we will discuss how to solve these questions and some sample questions with them.

Statements and Assumptions

A statement is given in a statement and assumption question, followed by a few assumptions made based on them. Candidates need to pick the assumption which is most appropriate and logical.

How to solve the statements and assumption problems?

Below are the steps that one should keep in mind to solve statement and assumption questions:

  • Firstly, Keep in mind that the assumptions regarding the statement would be true; then read the statement.
  • Do not get very logical with the statements. The student should make assumptions based on the information given in the statement. Do not make things complicated. Simply analyze the given information.
  • Students can always use basic assumptions, but apart from that, do not link the statement with current affairs or other facts.
  • The student should use the elimination method if the student cannot apprehend the answer. Understand the statement and read through the assumptions given in options; most of them will be eliminated by common sense. Eliminating them and then choosing from lesser options may prove to be more convenient.
  • One thing to note is that the author believes the assumption is valid, so keep this thought in mind while choosing the correct option. If there is an option that contradicts or opposes the statement then, that assumption will not be considered.

Example Questions

Example 1: 

Statement: Food poisoning in rural areas is due to the widespread consumption of alcohol. 

Assumption I: There are more illegal and unauthorized shops selling alcohol in villages and rural areas 

Assumption II: The ratio of people drinking alcohol in villages is much more than that in towns 

  1. Both assumptions I and II follow 
  2. Neither assumption I nor II follows 
  3. Only assumption I follows 
  4. Assumptions II follows, but assumption I do not follow 
  5. Either assumption I or assumption II follows 

 

Answer: Only assumption I follow 

Solution

The statement talks about food poisoning due to liquor, so the number of people consuming alcohol in towns or villages is not the primary concern here. This is why the only assumption I follow. 

Example 2: 

Statement: In an election conducted in Village A, only 25% of the total number of women came to vote in the election.

Assumption I: The number of women in the town is less than the number of men in village A.

Assumption II: Women could not come to vote as they had to cook food. 

  1. Both assumptions I and II follow 
  2. Neither assumption I nor II follows 
  3. The only assumption I follow 
  4. Only assumption II follows 
  5. Either assumption I or assumption II follows 

 

Answer: Neither assumption I nor II follows 

Solution:

The statement given in the question indicates that out of the total number of women in the town, only 25% of them came to vote, so the ratio of the number of men to women is not applicable here, and the second assumption given is not valid as well.

Example 3: 

Statement: "You are now appointed as an engineer with a probationary of six months, and your performance will be graded at the end of the probation period for confirmation." - A line in an appointment letter. 

Assumption 1: The performance of an individual generally is not known at the time of the appointment offer. 

Assumption 2: Generally, an individual tries to prove his worth in the probation period. 

  1. Only assumption I is implicit 
  2. Only assumption II is implicit 
  3. Either I or II is implicit 
  4. Neither I nor II is implicit 
  5. Both I and II are implicit 

 

Answer: 5. Both I and II are implicit 

Solution: 

As mentioned in the statement, The performance of the individual has to be tested over some time. Hence, Assumption I is implied. The statement also mentions that the one's worth shall be reviewed during the probation period before confirmation. So, II is also implied.

Statements and Conclusions

How to solve the statements and conclusion problems?

If two or more sentences are used to frame a statement, then the sentences must be interrelated, and mutual contradiction should exist. 

  • The information provided in the question statement is always enough for a student to answer the question. The student should not look for truthful notions. The candidate must make no assumptions. 
  • Always look for a keyword that is common between the statement and the conclusion. Read the question carefully.
  • If more than one conclusion applies to the statement, candidates must ensure that the findings they select to have some relation. 
  • Do not judge a question by the length of the statement. Ensure that you read the statement carefully before you conclude. 
  • Do not guess the answers when there is negative marking in these types of questions. Students tend to lose many marks because of guesswork.

Example Questions

Example1

Statements: The best way to get rid of a question is to solve it 

Conclusions: 

  1. Your life will be dull if you don't face a problem. 
  2. To escape from problems, you should always have some solutions with you
  3. Only conclusion 1 follow
  4. Only conclusion 2 follow 
  5. Either conclusion 1 or 2 follows 
  6. Neither conclusion 1 nor 2 follows 
  7. Both conclusions 1 and 2 follow 

 

Answer: D. Neither conclusion 1 nor 2 follows 

Solution: 

Clearly, both I and II do not follow from the given statement

Example 2: 

Statements: Some regular students fail in the examinations because irregularity is a cause for failure in exams. 

Conclusions: 

  1. All failed students are regular 
  2. All successful students are not regular 
  3. Only conclusion 1 follow 
  4. Only conclusion 2 follow 
  5. Either conclusion 1 or 2 follows 
  6. Neither conclusion 1 nor 2 follows 
  7. Both conclusions 1 and 2 follow 

 

Answer: D. Neither conclusion 1 nor 2 follows 

Solution: 

The statement given in the question implies that all irregular students and some regular students fail in the exam. This means that all the good scoring students are regular, but not all regular students score well. So neither I nor II follows.

Example 3: 

Statements: The ABC university has started a cell that will conduct workshops in stress management for students.

Conclusions: 

  1. The university has needed resources to start such an activity 
  2. Students feel a need to have such cells in the university. 
  3. Only conclusion 1 follow.
  4. Only conclusion 2 follow.
  5. Either conclusion 1 or 2 follows. 
  6. Neither conclusion 1 nor 2 follows. 
  7. Both conclusions 1 and 2 follow. 

 

Answer: E. Both conclusions 1 and 2 follows

Solution

Since the university has started the activity, it must have been well-equipped for the same. So, Assumption I follows. Any new activity is started keeping in mind the need for it. So, Assumption  II also follows.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQS)

  1. Why learn statements, assumptions, and conclusions?
    Learning statements, assumptions, and conclusions topic helps us improve our analytical skills and logical thinking.
     
  2. What is a statement?
    A statement is a collection of words arranged in order to form a meaningful sentence. Statements are the kind of sentences that are either true or false.
     
  3. What is an assumption?
    An assumption is an unstated situation that we take for valid or that supports the conclusion.
     
  4. What do you mean by the conclusion?
    A conclusion is a decision or opinion reached after some research or a period of thought on some facts or sentence that someone has said.

Key Takeaways

We understood the basic terminology and differences between statements, assumptions, and conclusions. Also, this article mentioned several techniques to solve statement & assumptions questions and statement & conclusion questions. 

Mainly, statements, assumptions, and conclusions questions are very scoring, and we just need to improve our logical thinking and ability to analyze situations. This article will surely help in learning the skills to help in solving questions about this topic.

For more such content refer Aptitude section and you can also enroll in the Aptitude course.

 

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