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Introduction To C++

Jaskirat Singh Saggu
Last Updated: Mar 18, 2023


In this blog, we will dive into multiple concepts of C++ language in detail. From looking over the basic features of C++ to advanced concepts such as file handling and exception handling, we will visit everything.

This article aims at providing a deep understanding of multiple concepts of C++ to a beginner. For better performance, it is systematically classified into proper subheadings.

Brief History

  • C++ is a high-level, object-oriented programming language developed in the early 1980s by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs. The language was initially designed to extend the popular C programming language to support object-oriented programming and other features not present in C.
  • One of the primary goals of the C++ language was to provide a more efficient and flexible way to write software for large-scale systems. To achieve this goal, Stroustrup added several features to C++, including support for classes, inheritance, polymorphism, templates, and exceptions.
  • Since its creation, C++ has been one of the most popular programming languages globally. It is widely used in operating systems, video games, web browsers, and scientific simulations. Many popular software libraries and frameworks, such as Qt, Boost, and the Standard Template Library (STL), are written in C++.

Basic Features of C++

  • C++ is a high-level programming language that supports object-oriented, generic, and procedural programming paradigms. 
  • It is fast and efficient to write high-performance code for various applications. 
  • Some of the key features of C++ include support for classes and objects, templates, operator overloading, exception handling, and low-level memory manipulation.
  • Additionally, C++ is compatible with many other programming languages and platforms, making it a versatile tool for software development.

Why learn C++?

The reasons to learn C++ are listed below-

  • C++ is a widely-used language in the industry, with a long history of applications in video games, operating systems, and finance.
  • C++ provides high performance and efficiency, focusing on low-level memory manipulation and hardware interaction.
  • Learning C++ helps build a strong foundation in object-oriented programming, a valuable skill for many software development roles.
  • C++ offers various features, including templatespolymorphism, and exception handling.
  • C++ is a universal language used in many platforms and operating systems, making it a valuable skill for cross-platform development.

Different Versions of C++

The entire timeline of C++ is as follows-

  • C++98: The first standardized version of C++, released in 1998, introduced many of the language's core features, such as templates, exception handling, and namespaces.
  • C++03: An incremental update to C++98, released in 2003, added minor language features and clarified some specification details.
  • C++11: A significant update to C++, released in 2011, introduced several new language features, including lambda expressions, range-based for loops, and automatic type deduction.
  • C++14: An incremental update to C++11, released in 2014, added more language features, such as binary literals and generic lambdas.
  • C++17: Another major update to C++, released in 2017, added several new features, including structured bindings and fold expressions.
  • C++20: The latest version of C++, released in 2020, introduces many new features, such as concepts, coroutines, and modules. It also includes several improvements and refinements to existing language features.
  • C++23: An upcoming version of C++ that is currently in development and expected to be released in 2023, which is expected to add several new features such as pattern matching and ranges.

Setting up C++(Environment)

The following steps are to set up a C++ environment(VS code).

Step 1: Install a C++ compiler.

The first step is to install a C++ compiler on your computer. A compiler is a program that translates your C++ code into machine-readable instructions that your computer can execute. There are several C++ compilers available, such as GCC, Clang, and Microsoft Visual C++. In this example, we'll use GCC.

To install GCC on a Windows computer, follow these steps:

  • Download the GCC installer from the official website: 
  • GCC Installer
  • Run the installer. Make sure to select the "C++" component during the installation process.

To install GCC on a Mac, you can use Homebrew, a package manager for macOS:

  • Open the Terminal application.
  • Install Homebrew by running the following command: /bin/bash -c "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/HEAD/install.sh)"
  • Install GCC by running the following command: "brew install gcc."

Step 2: Install Visual Studio Code.

You'll need to install Visual Studio Code if you haven't already. You can download it from the official website: Visual studio.

Step 3: Install the C++ extension for Visual Studio Code.

To write and compile C++ code in Visual Studio Code, you'll need to install the C++ extension. Here's how:

  • Open Visual Studio Code.
  • Click on the Extensions icon on the left-hand side of the window (or press Ctrl+Shift+X).
  • In the search bar, type "C++" and press Enter.
  • Click on the "C/C++" extension from Microsoft and click the "Install" button.

Step 4: Create a new C++ project in Visual Studio Code.

Now that you have installed the C++ compiler and the C++ extension for Visual Studio Code, you can create a new C++ project. Here's how:

  1. Open Visual Studio Code.
  2. Click on "File" and select "New Folder."
  3. Name your project folder and click "Create Folder."
  4. Click on "File" and select "New File."
  5. Type in a name for your C++ file, followed by the ".cpp" extension (for example, "main. cpp"), and press Enter.
  6. Type in your C++ code in the editor.

Step 5: Configure the C++ extension in Visual Studio Code.

Before compiling and running your C++ code in Visual Studio Code, you must configure the C++ extension. Here's how:

  • Click on the "View" menu and select "Command Palette" (or press Ctrl+Shift+P).
  • Type "C++" in the search bar and select "C/C++: Edit Configurations (JSON)" from the list.
  • It will open the "c_cpp_properties.json" file. Replace the file's contents with the following code:


  • Save the file.

Different IDEs

Many Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) are available for writing, debugging, and running C++ code online and offline. Here are a few examples:

Offline IDEs:

  • Visual Studio: A popular IDE developed by Microsoft that provides a complete C++ development environment for Windows.
  • Code::Blocks: A free, open-source IDE that supports C++ and several other programming languages.
  • Eclipse: An open-source IDE that supports C++ development through its CDT (C/C++ Development Tooling) plugin.
  • Sublime Text: A lightweight text editor with various plugins and extensions that can be used for C++ development, making it a flexible and customizable option.

Online IDEs:

  • Repl.it: An online platform that allows users to write, run, and share code in several programming languages, including C++.
  • IDEOne: An online IDE that supports over 60 programming languages, including C++.
  • Codeanywhere: An online IDE allowing users to develop and run code in the cloud, with C++ and several other languages supported.
  • Coding Ninjas Compiler: Coding Ninjas Online IDE is a powerful tool for writing, testing, and debugging code. A user-friendly interface and various features make coding and collaboration easier.

Basic Concepts of C++

C++ is a programming language with a syntax based on the C programming language. The C++ program consists of a collection of statements organized into functions. Each statement in C++ must end with a semicolon (;) to indicate the end of the statement.

A basic "Hello World" program in C++ involves including the standard input/output library (iostream) and using the "cout" function to display a message on the console. The program typically looks like this:

#include <iostream>     //include the iostream library

int main() 

{            //start the main function

    std::cout << "Hello, World!";   //output the message

    return 0;                                     //end the program



  • In this program, the first line tells the compiler to include the iostream library. 
  • The second line defines the main function, which is the program's entry point. 
  • Inside the main function, the third line uses the "cout" function to output the "Hello, World!" message to the console.
  • The fourth line is a return statement that ends the program and returns a value of 0 to indicate successful completion.

Data Types in C++

The data types in C++ are as follows:

Basic data types:

  • Int: integer values.
  • Float single-precision floating-point values.
  • Double: double-precision floating-point values.
  • Bool: boolean values (true or false).
  • Char: single character values.

Derived data types:

  • Array: a collection of values of the same data type.
  • Pointer: a variable that stores the memory address of another variable.
  • Reference: an alias for an existing variable.
  • Function: a block of code that performs a specific task.

User-defined data types:

  • Struct: a collection of data items of different types.
  • Class: a collection of data items and member functions that operate on those data items.
  • Union: a data type that allows storing multiple data types in the exact memory location.

Other data types:

  • Enum: a user-defined data type that consists of a set of named values
  • Typedef: a keyword used to create an alias for a primitive data type.
  • Auto: a keyword that lets the compiler automatically deduce the data type of a variable based on its initialization value.
  • decltype: a keyword that allows the programmer to determine the data type of an expression at compile time.

Ranges of basic C++ data types.

Data TypesRange

-127 to 127 or 0 to 255



-2147483648 to 2147483647


long long int

-(2^63) to (2^63)-1



1 wide character










Variables & Constants


  • A variable is a named storage location that stores a value of a specific data type.
  • In C++, you must declare a variable before you can use it. A declaration specifies the variable's data type and name.
  • A variable is assigned a value using the assignment operator =. The value can be a constant, an expression, or the result of a function call.
  • The value of a variable is changed during the program's execution by assigning a new deal to it.
  • Variables in C++ are case-sensitive, meaning that myVariable and MyVariable are two different variables.
  • Example- int a. Here, a is a variable.


  • A constant is an identifier representing an unchanging value.
  • In C++, there are two types of constants: literal constants and symbolic constants.
  • A literal constant is a value written directly into the code, such as 42 or "hello."
  • A symbolic constant is a value given to a name using the const keyword. Once defined, the value of a symbolic constant cannot be changed.
  • Symbolic constants are often used to define values that are used multiple times throughout a program, as they can make the code more readable and easier to maintain.
  • Symbolic constants are typically declared at the beginning of a program or in a header file, and their names are usually written in all caps to distinguish them from variables.
  • Example- const int mod = 1e9+7.


Input / Output

In C++, you can take input from the user using the cin statement and show output to the console using the cout statement. Here's an example:

#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

int main() {

    int num;

    cout << "Enter a number: ";

    cin >> num;

    cout << "You entered: " << num << endl;

    return 0;



In C, you can take input using the scanf function and output using the printf function. Here's an example:

#include <stdio.h>

int main() {

    int num;

    printf("Enter a number: ");

    scanf("%d", &num);

    printf("You entered: %d\n", num);

    return 0;



The main difference between the i/o methods of C++ and C is that in C++, you can use the <<(insertion) and >>(extraction) operators with the cout and cin objects to perform formatted input and output. It makes the i/o syntax more concise and readable than C's printf and scanf functions. Additionally, C++'s i/o streams support operator overloading, which allows you to define custom i/o behavior for user-defined types.

Different Operators in c++

  1. Arithmetic Operators: These perform mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Some examples of arithmetic operators include:
  • Addition (+)
  • Subtraction (-)
  • Multiplication (*)
  • Division (/)
  • Modulus (%)
  • Increment (++)
  • Decrement (--)

2. Comparison Operators: These are used for comparing two values and returning a Boolean value (true or false) based on the comparison result. Some examples of comparison operators include:

  • Equal to (==)
  • Not equal to (!=)
  • Greater than (>)
  • Less than (<)
  • Greater than or equal to (>=)
  • Less than or equal to (<=)


3. Logical Operators: These combine and evaluate multiple conditions as a single condition. Some examples of logical operators include:

  • Logical AND (&&)
  • Logical OR (||)
  • Logical NOT (!)


4. Bitwise Operators: These are used for manipulating the bits of a value. Some examples of bitwise operators include:

  • Bitwise AND (&)
  • Bitwise OR (|)
  • Bitwise XOR (^)
  • Bitwise NOT (~)
  • Left shift (<<)
  • Right shift (>>)



  1. Variables: A variable is a named storage location that stores a value. In C++, variables must be declared before they are used. There are several types of variables in C++, including integers, floating-point numbers, characters, and boolean values.
  2. Examples:
  3. int num = 10;
  4. float price = 2.99;
  5. char letter = 'a'; 
  6. bool is_true = true;
  7.  Functions: Functions in C++ encapsulate a sequence of statements into a single unit invoked multiple times. Functions can take zero or more parameters and can return a value.


int add_numbers(int a, int b) 


  return a + b;




8. Conditional statements: Conditional statements in C++ execute different code blocks based on a condition. The if statement is the most basic conditional statement, but C++ provides the else if and else statements for more complex situations.


if (num > 0) {

  cout << "The number is positive";


else if (num < 0) {

  cout << "The number is negative";


else {

  cout << "The number is zero";




9. Loops: Loops in C++ repeat a sequence of statements multiple times. C++ provides several loops, including the for, while, and do-while loops.


for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {

            cout << i << endl;




10. Arrays: An array in C++ is a collection of elements of the same type stored in a contiguous memory location. Arrays can store and manipulate multiple values of the same data type.


int nums[5] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};

for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {

            cout << nums[i] << endl;



Conditional Statements

The conditional statements are as follows:

  • Conditional statements execute different blocks of code based on a condition.
  • The most basic conditional statement is the if statement, which has the syntax. 

if (condition)

 { // code to execute if the state is true }.

  • A condition evaluates to a boolean value (true or false).
  • If the state is true, the code within the curly braces will be executed; else, it is skipped.
  • C++ also provides the else statement to execute code if the condition is false.
  • Multiple conditions can be checked using the else if statement.
  • Conditional operator? : is a simple way of writing an if-else statement in a single line.
  • Conditional statements can be nested, with one conditional statement inside another.

Loop Statements

  • Loops allow you to repeat a code block multiple times.
  • C++ supports three types of loops: for, while, and do-while.
  • The for loop is handy when we know exactly how many times you want to repeat the code.
  • The while loop is used when you don't know how many times you want to re-execute the code, but you have a condition that must be true for the loop to continue.
  • The condition is checked after iteration in the do-while loop, so the code block will consistently execute at least once.
  • In all three types of loops, you can use break and continue statements to manipulate the flow of the circle.
  • The break is used to exit the loop prematurely while continuing skips the current iteration and go to the next one.
  • You can also use nested loops to create more complex iterations.
  • Avoiding infinite loops when the loop condition never becomes false is essential.
  • To avoid infinite loops, ensure your loop condition is updated inside the loop or use a break statement to exit the loop. 

Here are examples of the three types of loops in C++:


  • for loop
           // print the numbers 1 to 10

for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++) {

    cout << i << endl;



In this example, the for loop prints the numbers 1 to 10. The loop starts by initializing a variable i to 1, continues as long as i is less than or equal to 10, and increments i by one after each iteration.

  • While loop
// ask the user for a positive number

int num;

do {

    cout << "Enter a positive number: ";

    cin >> num;

} while (num <= 0);

cout << "You entered " << num << endl;


In this example, the while loop repeatedly asks the user to enter a positive number until they do so. The loop continues as long as the user enters a non-positive number.


  • Do-while loop
// roll a die until a six is rolled

int roll;

do {

    roll = rand() % 6 + 1;

    cout << "You rolled a " << roll << endl;

} while (roll != 6);

cout << "You rolled a 6!" << endl;


In this example, the do-while loop rolls a die until a six is rolled. The loop starts by rolling the die once, then continues as long as the roll is not a 6. The loop always executes even if the first roll is a 6.

Jump Statements

Here are a few critical points about Jump statements in C++.

  • Jump statements allow you to alter your program's control flow.
  • C++ supports three types of jump statements: break, continue, and goto.
  • The break statement is used to end a loop immediately.
  • When a break statement is encountered inside a loop, it immediately terminates, and program control resumes at the statement immediately following the loop.
  • The continue statement skips the current iteration and moves on to the next iteration.
  • When a continue statement is encountered inside a loop, it is skipped, and the loop immediately proceeds to the next iteration.
  • The goto statement transfers program control elsewhere in the program.
  • When a goto statement is encountered, program control jumps to the statement labeled with the specified label, and execution continues.
  • The use of goto is generally discouraged, as it can make code hard to understand and maintain.
  • It's essential to use jump statements judiciously and only when necessary to avoid creating hard-to-understand and maintain code.

Functions in C++

Functions in C++ are self-contained blocks of code that perform a specific task. They are used to break down an extensive program into smaller, more manageable units and to make the code more organized, reusable, and modular.

The advantages of using functions in C++ are

  1. Code reuse: Functions can be called multiple times from different program parts, reducing the need to rewrite the same code repeatedly.
  2. Modularity: Functions allow you to break down an extensive program into smaller, more manageable units, which makes the code more organized and easier to understand and maintain.
  3. Abstraction: Functions are to abstract away the implementation details of a complex operation and provide a simple interface to the user.
  4. Encapsulation: Functions hide the internal workings of a program and expose only the necessary information to the user.


double calcArea(double length, double width) 


    double area = length * width;

    return area;


int main()


    double length, width;

    cout << "Enter the length and width:" << end;

    cin >> length >> width;

    double area = calcArea(length, width);

    cout << "The area of the rectangle is: " << area << endl;

    return 0;



In this example, we define calcArea that takes two double arguments, length, and width, and returns the area of a rectangle. The function body calculates the area and returns it using the return statement.

In the main() function, we prompt the user to enter the length and width of the rectangle and then call the calcArea function with those values. The result is stored in the area variable, then printed to the console.

There are four return types in C++:

  1. void: Functions that do not return a value are declared with a void return type.
  2. Integral types: Functions that return an integral value (e.g., int, short, long, char) are declared with the appropriate return type.
  3. Floating-point types: Functions that return a floating-point value (e.g., float, double) are declared with the appropriate return type.
  4. User-defined types: Functions that return a user-defined type (e.g., a class object) are declared with the appropriate return type.

C++ Classes (OOPs)

Classes in C++ are user-defined data types that encapsulate data and functions into a single unit. A class can be well considered as an object blueprint which is instance of the class. The syntax for defining a class in C++ is as follows.

class Student



        int marks;


        void set(int val) {

            marks = val;


        int get() {

            return marks;




In this example, we define a class called Student with a private member variable marks and two public member functions set and get.

Objects are instances of a class that are created during runtime. They represent real-world entities or concepts and have attributes associated with them. For example, a car can be represented as an object of a Car class, with attributes such as color, make, and model and behaviors such as starting, stopping and accelerating.

The four concepts of Object Oriented Programming are-

  • Encapsulation: Bundling data and functions into a single unit (class) and hiding the implementation details from the user.
  • Abstraction: Reducing complexity by hiding unnecessary details and exposing only the relevant information to the user.
  • Inheritance: The mechanism by which one class can inherit the properties and behavior of another class. This promotes code reuse and reduces redundancy.
  • Polymorphism: The ability of an object to take on different forms depending on the context in which it is used. Polymorphism can be achieved through function overloading, function overriding, and virtual functions.


It is one of the fundamental concepts of object-oriented programming, which allows a new class to be based on an existing class, inheriting its properties and methods. The class inherited from is known as the base class, and the inherited class is known as the derived class. The derived class can inherit all the non-private properties and methods of the base class, and it can also add its properties and methods or override the properties and methods of the base class.

There are several types of inheritance in C++:

  1. Single Inheritance: When a class is derived from a single base class.
  2. Multiple Inheritance: When a class is derived from two or more base classes.
  3. Multi-level Inheritance: When a derived class is used as the base class for another derived class.
  4. Hierarchical Inheritance: When two or more derived classes are created from a single base class.

Inheritance promotes code reusability by allowing the derived class to inherit the properties and methods of the base class without having to rewrite the code. In addition, inheritance allows the derived class to add new properties and methods and to modify or override the properties and methods of the base class.


Abstraction is a core concept in computer science that involves simplifying complex entities by focusing on their essential features and ignoring irrelevant details. This process enables us to break down complex systems and ideas into more manageable parts that can be easily understood and manipulated.

In programming, abstraction can take various forms, such as data abstraction, procedural abstraction, and object-oriented abstraction. Data abstraction involves hiding the implementation details of data and providing a simple interface for accessing and manipulating it. Procedural abstraction involves creating functions or procedures to perform specific tasks without revealing implementation details. Object-oriented abstraction involves creating objects that encapsulate data and behavior to model real-world entities.


Polymorphism is a fundamental concept in object-oriented programming that enables objects to take on multiple forms or behaviors. Different objects can respond to the same message or method call in various ways. Polymorphism is a core principle of OOP, and it plays a vital role in creating flexible and reusable software systems.

Polymorphism can be achieved in several ways in OOP. One way is method overloading, which allows multiple methods with the same name but different parameters to coexist within the same class. Another way is method overriding, where a subclass provides a specific implementation of a method already defined in its superclass. 


Encapsulation is an essential concept in object-oriented programming (OOP) that refers to the bundling of data and behavior within a single unit, typically known as a class. The idea behind encapsulation is to create an abstraction layer that separates the internal workings of a class from the external code that uses it.

In other words, encapsulation allows us to hide the implementation details of a class from other parts of the program so that those other parts can interact with the class through a well-defined interface. This interface consists of public methods and properties accessed outside the class.

Advanced Concepts of C++

Exception Handling

Exception handling is a crucial programming technique for dealing with unexpected errors or exceptions during program execution. When an exception occurs, the program's normal flow is interrupted, and the program may either crash or produce incorrect results.

Programming languages provide a mechanism for detecting and reacting. In case of an error, the program can use exception handling to catch the exception, perform an appropriate action such as logging an error message, recovering from the exception, and continue executing the program.

The basic steps involved in exception handling are:

  • Detecting an exception occurs when an error occurs during program execution.
  • Raising an exception: This is done by explicitly throwing an exception in the code when an error is encountered.
  • Catching an exception: This is done by surrounding the code that may generate an exception with a try-catch block. If an exception is added in the try block, it is caught in the catch block, which can be handled appropriately.
  • Handling an exception: This involves taking some action to recover from the exception, such as logging an error message, retrying the operation, or notifying the user of the error.

File Handling

A file system organizes and stores computer files and data on a storage device, such as a hard drive, flash drive, or CD-ROM. It provides a logical structure for the files and directories to be organized and accessed by the operating system and users.

Advantages of file system:

  • Organization: File systems provide a structured and organized way of storing data and files on a storage device, making it easier to manage and locate files.
  • Access Control: File systems enable administrators to set permissions and restrictions on files and directories, providing access control and security for sensitive data.
  • File Sharing: File systems allow sharing of files and data between users and applications on a network, increasing collaboration and productivity.
  • Backup and Recovery: File systems support backup and recovery operations, enabling users to restore data that has been lost or damaged due to system failures, disasters, or human error.
  • Efficiency: File systems optimize storage and retrieval operations, improving performance and reducing overhead on the storage device.

File operations are the essential functions performed on files and directories in a file system. Some everyday file operations include:

  • Create: creating a new file or directory
  • Read: reading the contents of a file
  • Write: writing data to a file
  • Rename: change the name of a file or directory
  • Delete: remove a file or directory
  • Copy: duplicating a file or directory
  • Move: moving a file or directory from one location to another.


The advantages of C++ are as follows;

  • C++ is a high-performance language capable of producing efficient code for various applications.
  • It supports multiple programming categories, including procedural, object-oriented, and generic.
  • C++ allows for low-level memory manipulation and direct access to hardware resources, making it well-suited for systems programming.
  • It has a large and active community of developers, leading to a rich library and tool ecosystem.
  • C++ supports strong type checking and compile-time error detection, which can lead to more reliable code.


The disadvantages of C++ are as follows;

  • Memory management can be challenging, as C++ requires manual memory allocation and deallocation, leading to memory leaks and other errors.
  • C++ has a steep learning curve, and it can take significant time to become proficient.
  • C++ code can be more challenging to read and understand than other languages due to its use of pointers, operator overloading, and other advanced features.
  • C++ needs standardized libraries, making developing applications in specific domains, such as web development, more challenging.
  • C++ can be more prone to errors and bugs than other languages due to its low-level control over system resources.


  • C++ lacks built-in garbage collection, requiring manual memory management, which can be error-prone and time-consuming.
  • C++ does not have native concurrency support, requiring external libraries or manual implementation using threads or processes.
  • C++ can be difficult to debug due to the lack of runtime error checking and the potential for undefined behavior.
  • C++ lacks support for reflection and runtime type information, making certain types of introspection and dynamic programming more difficult.
  • C++ can be less expressive than other languages, requiring more verbose syntax and boilerplate code to achieve specific tasks.


Some applications of C++ are as follows:

  • Finance: C++ is used to develop trading algorithms, risk management systems, and other financial software that requires high performance and low latency.
  • Networking: C++ is used to develop network protocols and other software that requires low-level control over network resources.
  • Graphics and multimedia: C++ is used to develop applications requiring fast images and video processing, such as image editors and encoders.
  • Artificial intelligence and machine learning: C++ is used to develop machine learning algorithms and other applications that require high-performance computation.
  • Web development: While less popular than other languages for web development, C++ can be used to develop server-side applications and web services.

Careers in C++

  • Financial software developer: Develop trading algorithms, risk management systems, and other financial software using C++.
  • Networking engineer: Develop network protocols and other software that requires low-level control over network resources using C++.
  • Graphics programmer: Develop applications that require fast images and video processing, such as image editors and video encoders, using C++.
  • Game developer: Develop video games for consoles, PCs, and mobile devices using C++.
  • Systems programmer: Develop low-level software, such as device drivers and operating systems, using C++.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the difference between C++ & C?

C++ is an object-oriented language that is an extension of C. C++ includes features such as classes, inheritance, polymorphism, and templates, which are unavailable in C.

Why do we need STL?

The Standard Template Library (STL) provides a collection of generic data structures and algorithms that can be used with different data types in C++ programs. STL helps in reducing development time by providing pre-implemented, optimized, and well-tested algorithms and containers that can be used for different applications. 

Why do we use the header #include<bits/stdc++.h>?

The header "#include<bits/stdc++.h>" is not a standard C++ header, but it is often used in competitive programming to include most standard headers in one go. This can save time writing code for programming contests, where time is often critical.



We conclude that C++ is a powerful and popular language widely used for system programming, game development, and other high-performance applications. It provides features such as classes, inheritance, polymorphism, and templates for efficient and modular code. The language has a steep learning curve, but its vast community and extensive documentation make it easier to master. C++ is suitable for large-scale projects that require high performance, low-level memory management, and flexibility in code design.

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