HTML Vs XHTML

Yogesh Kumar
Last Updated: May 13, 2022

Introduction

HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. It is the most often utilized language for creating web pages. It defines the structure of a web page and how it looks by using a list, paragraphs, and many more things. HTML has tags and attributes to design any webpage.

XHTML stands for Extensible HyperText Markup Language. It has a place with the classification of markup languages. XHTML is HTML characterized as an XML application. All significant browsers uphold the XHTML. It was addressed to make HTML more extensible and adaptable to work with different information designs.

Difference between HTML Vs XHTML

The contrast between HTML Vs XHTML is that HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a hypertext and markup programming language used to make website pages. At the same time, Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) is a hypertext and markup programming language obtained from HTML. HTML doesn't have a case-sensitive nature; subsequently, the list, tags, and attributes can be written in lowercase or uppercase, while XHTML can be case-sensitive.


HTML is known as Hypertext Markup Language. HTML is a programming language that developers generally utilize to make web pages. It is a hypertext and markup language that empowers the developer to connect one text to another. Accordingly, it is a basic programming language that permits an individual to peruse and see easily.XHTML is known as Extensible Hypertext Markup Language. It is a programming language made from HTML that is utilized to develop pages. XHTML is like HTML, yet the codes are significantly more exact and amazing than HTML. Unlike HTML, which requires a forgiving HTML-specific parser, XHTML documents are well-formed and may thus be parsed using conventional XML parsers.

 

HTML Versus XHTML

Comparison ParameterHTMLXHTML
StandsHypertext Markup LanguageExtensible Hypertext Markup Language
UsesHTML is a hypertext and markup programming language used to create web pages.the XHTML is an HTML-derived hypertext and markup language that is used to develop web pages and applications.
NestingNest Tags are not used in HTML.Nest Tags are used in XHTML.
Case SensitiveHTML does not have a case sensitivity nature hence the codes can either be written in uppercase or lowercase.Because XHTML is case-sensitive, only lower case is used.
Error HandlingError in HTML can be easily rectifiedError in XHTML is not easily rectifiable.
ApplicationsHTML is used to create web pages, game development, and internet navigations.XHTML is used to build well-structured and outstanding web pages.

 

How is XHTML different from HTML?

  • <!DOCTYPE> is mandatory
  • The XML attribute in <html> is mandatory
  • <html>, <head>, <title>, and <body> are mandatory
  • Elements must always be properly nested
  • Elements must always be closed
  • Elements must always be in lowercase
  • The names of attributes must always be in lowercase.
  • Attribute values must always be quoted
  • Attribute minimization is forbidden

XHTML -<!DOCTYPE> is Mandatory

An XHTML document must have an XHTML <!DOCTYPE> declaration.The <html>, <head>, <title>, and <body> elements must also be present, and the xmlns attribute in <html> must specify the xml namespace for the document.

Here is an XHTML Document with minimum required tags:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
 <head>
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=\, initial-scale=1.0">
  <title>Title of Document</title>
 </head>
 <body>
  Some Content Here...
 </body>
</html>

Refer to the table to understand the tags:

S.no

Tag name

Description

1

<!DOCTYPE ....>

This tag defines the document type and HTML version.

2

<html>

This tag encloses the whole HTML page and consists mostly of the document header (represented by <head>...</head> tags) and the document body (represented by <body>...</body> tags).

3

<head>

This tag represents the document's header, which includes additional HTML tags such as <title>, <link>, <meta> and so forth.

4

<meta>

The <meta> tag is used to define metadata about an HTML document. Metadata is information (data) about the document.

5

<title>

The <title> tag is used within the <head> tag to specify the document’s title.

6

<body>

This tag represents the document's body, which contains additional HTML tags such as <h1>, <div>, <p>, and so on.

7

<h1>

This tag represents the heading. There are six different HTML headings from <h1> to <h6>.

8

<p>

This tag represents the paragraph.

XHTML Elements Must be Properly Nested

HTML:

Some HTML components are wrongly nested inside each other, as shown here:

<b><i>This text is bold and italic</b></i>

In the above example, element <b> closes before closing the <i>, which is the wrong way to nest the elements.

XHTML:

All elements in XHTML should be nested inside each other, similar to this:

<b><i>This text is bold and italic</i></b>

 

XHTML Elements Must Always be Closed

HTML:

In HTML, there is some element in which there is no need to close them, for example <br> i.e break tag.

<p>This is Para1 <br> This is para2 </p>

 

XHTML:

But in XHTML it is necessary to close the elements always, as shown below:

<p>This is a paragraph</p>
<p>This is another paragraph</p>

By closing them, you are giving the surety to the browser to understand which line you will execute first and which one is last.

 

XHTML Empty Elements Must Always be Closed

HTML:

In HTML, there is no need to close empty elements, such as <area>, <br>, etc.

<p>This is Para1 <br> This is para2 </p>

 

XHTML:

But in XHTML you need to close them always, as shown below:

A break: <br />
A horizontal rule:<hr />
An image: <img src="happy.gif" alt="Happy face" />

If you do not close them, they will not show the result or show the simple tag as a statement on the browser.

 

XHTML Elements Must be in Lowercase

HTML:

In HTML, there is no need to take elements in Lowercase you can take in Uppercase as well.

<P>This is HTML's paragraph element</P>

 

XHTML:

<body>
  <p>This is a paragraph</p>
</body>

It is good practice to use the elements in lowercase for a developer.

 

XHTML Elements Attribute name must be in Lowercase

HTML:

In HTML you can take attribute names in lowercase as well as in uppercase

<a HREF="#">This is Example</A>

 

.XHTML:

But in the case of XHTML it is mandatory to write attribute names in lowercase, as shown below:

<a href="https://www.xyz.com/html/">Attributes</a>

It will throw an error if you use uppercase.

 

XHTML Attribute values must be Quoted

HTML:

In HTML it is not necessary to put attribute values in quotes if the value does not contain any space, ‘ , “ , < and >.

<a href=www.xyz.com>This is Example</a>

 

XHTML:

But in XHTML it is mandatory to put quotes, If you do not use quotes it will not understand whether it is a link or what.

<a href="https://www.xyz.com/html/">Attributes</a>

If you do not use quotes, it will not understand whether it is a link or not.

 

XHTML Attribute minimization is Forbidden

Attribute Minimization is not possible in XML. Attribute-value pairs must be typed in their whole. Compact and checked are examples of attribute names that cannot appear in elements unless their value is supplied.

"Attribute minimization" is the term for using "checked" in this fashion. This indicates that the author has used the attribute's name but not its value.

<input type="checkbox" name="vehicle" value="car" checked="checked" />
<input type="text" name="lastname" disabled="disabled" />

 

Frequently Asked Question

Q1. For what reason is XHTML required? Isn't HTML sufficient?

HTML is likely the best document markup language on the planet. Be that as it may, when XML was presented, a two-day workshop was coordinated to discuss whether another adaptation of HTML in XML was required. The assessment at the workshop was a clear 'Yes': with an XML-based HTML, other XML languages could include bits of XHTML, and XHTML documents could include bits of other markup languages. We could likewise exploit the upgrade to tidy up a portion of the more chaotic pieces of HTML and add some new required usefulness as better structures.
 

Q2. What are the benefits of utilizing XHTML as opposed to HTML?

In comparison to HTML, XHTML has more stringent syntax constraints. XHTML provides a more consistent, well-structured syntax for your webpages, making it easier for current and future web browsers to interpret and process them. It also makes your website easier to maintain, amend, convert, and format in the long run.

Q3. What is the utilization of XHTML Modularization?

XHTML Modularization isn't focused on the ordinary clients of XHTML, however at architects of XHTML-based languages. It had been seen that organizations and gatherings would, in general, plan their adaptations of HTML Vs XHTML that were regularly not interoperable at essential levels. XHTML Modularization parts into a few modules that can be independently chosen when characterizing another language; thus, any XHTML-based language that utilizes tables is ensured to utilize a similar meaning of table and not some unique variant. Modularization likewise clarifies where it is ok to add new elements and where it isn't.

Q4. What is the simplest method to change over my HTML documents to XHTML?

HTML Tidy gives you a choice to change any HTML document into an XHTML one. Amaya is a browser/editorial manager that will save HTML documents as XHTML.

Key takeaways

HTML, a hypertext markup language, is a hypertext and markup programming language used to make web pages. Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) is an HTML-based hypertext and markup programming language used to create web pages. Although HTML Vs XHTML appears to be identical, they differ in several ways. Both HTML Vs XHTML are basic, simple to utilize programming dialects ​​that can be handily perceived by the human brain. Keep a lookout for future posts to help you along your growth path.

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