Update appNew update is available. Click here to update.
Last Updated: Jun 1, 2023

Characteristics of IoT (Internet of Things)

Author Rajkeshav
Characteristics of IoT


The IoT refers to a network of linked devices and technology. IoT enables the communication between devices and the cloud and between devices. We now have billions of devices connected to the Internet due to the introduction of low-cost computer chips and high-bandwidth telephony. Sensors can be used in daily products such as toothbrushes, vacuum cleaners, vehicles, and machinery to collect data and respond intelligently to consumers.

Different Characteristics of IOT (Internet of Things) are:

  • Intelligence
  • Identity
  • Connectivity
  • Dynamic Nature
  • Architecture 
  • Enormous Scale
  • Sensing
  • Heterogeneity
  • Security

1. Intelligence

IoT is intelligent because it combines algorithms and processing, software and hardware. Ambient intelligence improves the capabilities of IoT devices, allowing them to respond intelligently to a situation and assist them in completing specified tasks. Despite the popularity of intelligent technologies, intelligence in the Internet of Things is solely concerned with device interaction. In contrast, user and device contact is accomplished using standard input methods and graphical user interfaces.

2. Identity

Every IoT device has a distinct identification. Its identification element is instrumental if it needs to retrieve data from a specific device.

3. Connectivity

By connecting everyday devices, connectivity enables the Internet of Things. Because simple object-level interactions contribute to collective intelligence in an IoT network, connectivity of these things is critical. It allows for network connectivity and device interoperability. The networking of intelligent devices and apps can provide new commercial prospects for the Internet of Things with this connectivity.

4. Dynamic Nature

The primary function of the Internet of Things is to gather data from its surroundings. The data is accomplished through the dynamic changes around the devices. The condition of these devices changes dynamically, such as sleeping and waking up, being connected or disconnected, and the context of devices, such as temperature, location, and speed.

5. Architecture

IoT architecture should be hybrid, allowing for multiple manufacturers to participate. As a result, nature cannot be homogeneous. There is no engineering branch called IoT. When several domains join together, IoT emerges.

6. Enormous Scale

The number of devices that must be managed and communicated with one another will be far more than the number of devices currently linked to the Internet. The management and analysis of data provided by these devices for application purposes have become increasingly important.

7. Sensing

Sensors that detect or measure changes in the environment to generate data that can report on their condition or even interact with the environment are essential to the Internet of Things. Sensing technologies enable the development of capabilities that reflect a proper understanding of the physical environment and its inhabitants. Although sensing data is analog input from the physical world, it can provide a deep insight into our complicated reality.

8. Heterogeneity

One of the significant aspects of the Internet of Things is heterogeneity. Devices in the Internet of Things are based on many hardware platforms and networks, and they can communicate with other devices or service platforms over various networks. Direct network connectivity between heterogeneous networks should be supported by IoT architecture. Scalabilities, modularity, extensibility, and interoperability are the core design criteria for heterogeneous things.

9. Security

IoT devices are inherently vulnerable to cyber-attacks. It is a mistake to overlook security problems while gaining efficiencies, innovative experiences, and other benefits from the Internet of Things. IoT has a high level of transparency and privacy concerns. Securing endpoints, networks, and the data transported between them all necessitates the development of a security paradigm. 

10. Self Improvement

IoT upgrades itself without assistance from humans thanks to its artificial intelligence. Regular software updates are crucial; therefore, the feature of self-improvement or upgradation is very important. Also, the technology can immediately begin operating if the setup is already complete.

11. Data Driven

In addition to gaining significant competitive advantages, data-driven IoT can transform organisations so that they are resilient, composable, and able to adapt to new business models, processes, and products before the competition and market trends. 

IoT devices and systems gather massive volumes of data from sensors and other sources, which can then be analysed and used to drive decision-making.

12. Context Awareness

An important aspect of the Internet of Things (IoT) is its context-awareness nature. It is the ability to comprehend and react to the environment and context in which they are functioning is referred to as context awareness. Any information that is pertinent to a certain entity, such as a person, a device, or an application, is included in the context. 

IoT devices and systems can make decisions and take actions based on the context in which they are functioning, thanks to context awareness.

What are examples of IoT devices?

Some examples of IoT devices are as follows:

Motion Detectors: These tools can spot structural irregularities and disturbances that could trigger disastrous failures. Motion sensors can pick up vibrations in huge structures like buildings, bridges, dams, and others.

Activity Monitors: Activity trackers are sensor-based gadgets that may continuously monitor and communicate important health markers. You may monitor and control your oxygen levels, appetite, physical activity, and blood pressure.

Smart Home Appliances: IoT connections are used to connect a range of sensors, lights, alarms, and cameras—all of which can be managed from a smartphone—to provide security around the clock.

Connected Car: Similar to connecting to a wireless network in a home or office, these cars have an Internet connection that they may share with other users.

Smart Cities: The Internet of Things may ease traffic congestion, lower crime rates, and minimise noise and pollution with the right connections and data. By addressing genuine issues that everyday inhabitants confront, the IoT has the ability to advance entire cities completely. 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet of Things

The advantages of IoT are as follows:

  • It saves a significant amount of our time by lowering the human effort.
  •  IoT devices can automate jobs as they interact and communicate with one another, enhancing the quality of a company's services and requiring less human involvement.
  • With the correct tracking system and IoT technologies, asset tracking, delivery, surveillance, traffic or transportation tracking, inventory control, individual order tracking, and customer management may all be done more affordably.
  •  It gives safety for the individual and improves security.

The disadvantages of IoT are as follows:

  • They have a high reliance on the internet and are unable to function well without it.
  • It takes a lot of work to design, create, manage, and enable a large technical infrastructure for the Internet of Things.
  • IoT systems are networked and connected, which raises security concerns.
  • Since there is no global IoT interoperability standard, communication between devices made by various manufacturers is difficult.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the characteristics of the IoT?

  • Intelligence
  • Identity
  • Connectivity
  • Dynamic Nature
  • Architecture
  • Enormous Scale
  • Sensing
  • Heterogeneity
  • Security

Which is not the characteristic of IoT?

An Internet of Things application is a set of services and software that combines data from numerous IoT devices. It analyses the data and makes informed decisions using sensors and actuators. Hence working without sensors is not a characteristic of IoT.

What devices apply the characteristics of IoT?

Various IoT applies the characteristics of IoT, such as home security devices, activity tracker devices, motion detector devices, etc. For example, a key driver behind secure homes is IoT. Alarms, lights, and cameras, which can be used to monitor home security and can be managed through smartphones, fall under the category of IoT.

What are the characteristics and functional blocks of IoT?

IoT characteristics include analysing massive data and delivering comprehensive systems for a good or service using artificial intelligence technology. IoT systems are composed of a number of building parts, including devices, communication, security, services, and applications. 

What are IoT Applications?

An Internet of Things application is a set of services and software that combines data from numerous IoT devices. It analyses the data and makes informed decisions using machine learning or AI technology.


A vast range of technologies is associated with the Internet of Things which aid in its proper operation. IoT technologies have the features listed above that add value and support human activities; they also expand the capabilities of the IoT network by cooperating and becoming a part of the overall system.

Practice more on code studio, and do check the following articles

Big Data Implementation Roadmap

Amazon Lookout for Vision

Amazon Lookout for Metrics

Components Of IOT

Phases of Compiler

Memory Hierarchy

Previous article
Top Programming Languages for IoT Development
Next article
Internet of Robotic Things(IoRT)
Codekaze-June23 India's Biggest Tech Hiring Challenge is LIVE!
Register Now
Go on top