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When they said ‘Two steps forward, one step back, they were talking about backtracking. In backtracking, we try out various outcomes possible for one configuration. Once we are done with one configuration we backtrack to explore other configurations. The last time when you got stuck on one of the optional questions in an exam and tried to attempt the other one, you were actually backtracking. Another well-known application of a backtracking problem is the permutations of an array.
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